Category: Historical Collections & Archives

A Good Neighbor: John Chipman Gray the Elder

July 1, 2021
Figure 1: Map of the Larchwood Neighborhood and Mount Auburn Cemetery, noting the original location of the Gray mansion (now on Larch Rd.) and the Gray family lots on Hemlock Path

By Karen Falb

Mount Auburn Cemetery and the nearby Larchwood Neighborhood (Fig. 1) have a history going back to the Cemetery’s founding in 1831. At that time, the neighborhood was an estate owned by John Chipman Gray (1793-1881), a state politician and horticulturist who resided on Boston’s Summer Street. He used his Cambridge property as a family farmstead and summer residence convenient to Boston, where he served as both a state representative and senator from 1829 to 1852. Researchers today can find him listed as John Gray, John C. Gray, and John Chipman Gray the Elder. His estate was inherited by his nephew John Chipman Gray (1839-1915), son of Horace Gray, Harvard Law Professor and partner in the law firm Ropes and Gray. After the death of the younger Gray, the estate was developed into the Larchwood Neighborhood in 1915.

John Gray was one of the many gentleman farmers of the Boston area involved with prominent voluntary associations such as the Massachusetts Historical Society and the Society for the Promotion of Massachusetts Agriculture. He was also a founding member and first vice president (1829-1833) of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society during its early years, when it championed the project of developing a rural cemetery. Although the Society’s president Henry Dearborn and corresponding secretary Jacob Bigelow were the masterminds of what became Mount Auburn, the support of people like John Gray made their efforts successful.

Historic black-and-white map of Cambridge
Figure 2: “Map of Boston and Its Vicinity from Actual Survey with Corrections in 1833,” by John G. Hales. The red dot shows the Gray mansion near the junction of Mount Auburn and Brattle Streets and the original Fresh Pond Lane. Below the mansion is the Cambridge Watertown line shown as linear dots. The Gray family’s estate extended into that area.

One of the most important of these supporters was the merchant and art collector George W. Brimmer, whose land bordering Mount Auburn Street in Cambridge became the core of the Cemetery (Fig. 2). Beginning in 1825, Brimmer had purchased acreage in Watertown and Cambridge with the idea of making an estate. But by 1831 he had given up the idea because of ill health, and was eager to sell the land to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society for its new cemetery. One of Brimmer’s original Cambridge parcels was purchased from John Gray’s father, the Boston merchant and Massachusetts politician William “Billy” Gray. However, Gray had retained 1.3 acres directly in front of his mansion and the triangle of land between Brattle and Mount Auburn Streets.

Historic black-and-white picture of a man in a suit
Figure 3: John Chipman Gray (1797-1881)

When his father died later in 1825, John Gray inherited the 1.3-acre parcel with the estate and mansion. He then sold that land to George Brimmer in September 1831, adding to the total area purchased by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. And later that fall, he helped support the Society’s financing of the cemetery land by buying three contiguous lots for the Gray family’s future needs. Since he and his wife, Elizabeth, had no children, those future needs included those of his older single brother, Frances Calley Gray, and his younger brother Horace Gray and his family. His parents were already interred in St. Paul’s Cathedral on Tremont Street in Boston.

Located on a foothill by the intersection of Hemlock and Lily Paths, the Gray family lots are on a line from the original mansion house site to the Mount Auburn mount. Perhaps the lots were chosen by John and Elizabeth for existing views both from and to the mansion. 25 years after their purchase, the first burial was of Frances Calley Gray in 1856. His poignant marble memorial of an old loyal dog catches one’s attention to this day. The next burial was of Horace Gray in 1873, marked by a simple marble stone. John’s wife, Elizabeth Pickering Gardner Gray (aunt to Isabella Stewart Gardner’s husband), followed in 1879, and John joined her in 1881 (Fig. 4).

Cemetery monuments on a sunny day
Figure 4: The three Gray family lots on Hemlock Path bought in 1831 by John Chipman Gray. The John Chipman and Elizabeth Pickering Gardner Gray memorials are the flat stones in front of the large urn commemorating his parents, William and Elizabeth Chipman Gray. Frances Calley Gray’s memorial is the marble dog with flat stone. Memorials for Horace Gray’s family members are scattered throughout the lots. A third brother, William Rufus Gray, and his family are on Lime Avenue. Photo by Karen Falb.
Cemetery monument topped with an urn
Figure 5: A closer view of the Gray family memorials within their picturesque setting. The marble stones have undergone extreme weathering from a northeast exposure. Photo by Karen Falb.

What should John Gray be remembered for today? Certainly his support of the Cemetery during its first year is important. This included his leadership in the Massachusetts Horticultural Society as well as personal decisions to sell land to complete the cemetery and provide financial support by buying lots. Later he was a Trustee from 1845-1849 and a neighbor for fifty years. It is easy to imagine, though, that as a horticulturist he must have been at least initially disappointed when the Massachusetts Horticultural Society’s goal of developing experimental gardens in or near his former 1.3 acres was dropped by 1835 when Mount Auburn became a separate corporation.

Meanwhile, the Larchwood Neighborhood still memorializes him as well, especially his interest in trees. Its name was inspired by the trees he and other family descendants planted at the edge of the estate for privacy. Many of these interesting estate trees were saved by the architectural landscape firm Pray Hubbard and White when they planned the neighborhood in 1915. A few from the Gray estate survive to this day. (Fig. 6 – top photo. A memorial commemorating the 100th birthday of the neighborhood placed in the Larchwood cul de sac on Fresh Pond Lane. Photo by Karen Falb.)

Woman in blue and purple shirt and white sweater

Karen Falb is a retired biology teacher and landscape historian. She and her husband, Peter Falb, have enjoyed the Cemetery’s beauty and history for almost 50 years as neighbors living in the Larchwood Neighborhood, almost on the original site of the Gray’s family mansion now located on Larch Road.

In the Words of Edward Everett, Mount Auburn’s Early Advocate

July 1, 2021

Born in Dorchester, Massachusetts Edward Everett (1794-1865) achieved national renown as an orator and politician of the Civil War era. History remembers him for his speech, approximately 13,000 words, at the Gettysburg National Cemetery in 1863. President Abraham Lincoln followed Everett with his 272-word Gettysburg Address. Everett then famously wrote to Lincoln, “I should be glad if I could flatter myself, that I came as near to the central idea of the occasion in two hours, as you did in two minutes.”[1]

Not as well-known is the role Everett’s eloquence and support played in the creation of Mount Auburn Cemetery. Formerly chair of Greek literature at Harvard and pastor for a Unitarian church in Boston, Everett also became a founder and a trustee of Mount Auburn.[2] He was on the Cemetery and Garden Committee of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society to establish a cemetery outside of Boston in 1831. Other members of the committee, and founders of Mount Auburn, included the physician and botanist Jacob Bigelow, and politician and horticulturist Henry A. S. Dearborn.


President Alan Chesney’s Photographic Legacy

April 27, 2021

A former Air Force pilot who served 35 missions in World War II, Alan Chesney was president and trustee of Mount Auburn from 1968 to 1988. During that time, Chesney oversaw the sale of 15 acres of land for family lots and single graves, the addition of 4,000 new grave spaces, and the planting of hundreds of trees and shrubs. He also established the Friends of Mount Auburn Cemetery (FOMAC) in 1986, a program that continues to promote the appreciation of the Cemetery through its preservation, horticultural rejuvenation, and educational programs. Photo above: Flowering Tree, Wilkinson Monument, Undated.